Fitness in general includes both aerobic and anaerobic aspects. In accordance with the priorities of the sportsman, one or the other of these two aspects will be emphasized, however the second one will not be neglected. The purpose of doing fitness exercises is, ideally, to make a complete athlete, able to face various physical and psychological demands.
The object of aerobic fitness is the so-called heart disease, an expression which means the cardio-vascular system and also the heart muscle (myocardium). We’ll discuss trainings which usually do not make oxygen duty and that are generally called ‘trainings of aerobic effort’. More exactly, they refer to efforts which take too much time (greater than 12 minutes) – usually they take between 20 and 1 hour and they also determine acceleration of cardiac frequency and lung ventilation. Efficiency in training requires a frequency between 60-80% of the maximum cardiac frequency (calculated in accordance with the formula 720-age – in years).
The typical exercises of aerobic fitness originate from classic resistance sports (cross country running, cycling, swimming, fast walking, etc.) and from different aerobic training programs (aerobic gymnastics, step-aerobic, tae-bo, dance, etc.).
Aerobic fitness uses specific cardio machines: treadmill, classic or elliptical exercise machine, stepper,etc. Dosing the aerobic effort depends on the somatic type and also the actual objectives of every sportsman.
Normally, the ectomorphic and mezomorphic types, which tend not to accumulate large amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue, will have to practice for any rather short period of time (20-thirty minutes per training in several trainings per week, in non-consecutive days). This time around is necessary for realizing a powerful cardiac stimulation, without the risk of losing muscular mass.
For the endomorphic somatic type, ‘benefiting’ of lots of adipose tissue, aerobic training must last 45-1 hour and requires to happen 4-6 times per week.
Even when trainings are extended (time, miles) and they are generally more frequent, their intensity, which is offered by the cardiac rhythm per training, must remain high, so finally our bodies burns as many calories as possible. It really is well known that only after 20-thirty minutes the body begins to mobilize body fat ‘deposits’. Before, at the beginning of the education, the energetic support from the aerobic effort is ensured through the muscular and hepatic glycogen, exactly like in anaerobic efforts, which are supported exclusively by the glycogen from the muscles and the liver.
This is one of the main reasons for recommending, in programs designed for losing weight, aerobic exercises – those are the biggest and fastest ‘fat burners’. Of course, one other big advantages of these exercises appear qrxocy the cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological as well as other levels.
A real euphoria is observed at the psychological level during aerobic training. This really is motivated by the big variety of endorphins produced within the body by this type of effort. Endorphins, also called hormones of happiness, usually are not produced in such a big quantity during anaerobic effort. Anaerobic training determines a huge release of catecholamine (adrenaline, noradrenalin), which can be considered stress hormones.
A disadvantage of aerobic fitness is, first of all, non-developing a strong and fortified musculature, as a result of reduced muscle efforts. We can also observe (and should resist) the monotony in the training, that is long and repetitive. However, in most cases, the advantages of aerobic fitness are remarkable and irreplaceable.