Immunization là gì

At birth, infants have protection against certain diseases because antibodies have sầu passed through the placenta from the mother lớn the unborn child. After birth, breastfed babies get the continued benefits of additional antibodies in breast milk. But in both cases, the protection is temporary.

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Lúc mới sinh, nhờ phòng thể truyền từ bỏ bà mẹ mang đến tnhị nhi qua nhau tnhị nên trẻ rất có thể tránh khỏi một số bệnh dịch nào kia. Sau Khi Ra đời, trẻ bú chị em vẫn được bổ sung thêm những kháng thể bao gồm trong sữa người mẹ giúp nhỏ nhắn khoẻ mạnh mẽ. Nhưng trong cả hai trường phù hợp bên trên thì mức độ đảm bảo an toàn cho bé bỏng chỉ là trong thời điểm tạm thời trong một thời gian nđính thêm thôi.

At birth, infants have protection against certain diseases because antibodies have passed through the placenta from the mother to the unborn child. After birth, breastfed babies get the continued benefits of additional antibodies in breast milk. But in both cases, the protection is temporary.

Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to lớn certain diseases by using small amounts of a killed or weakened microorganism that causes the particular disease.

Microorganisms can be viruses, such as the measles vi khuẩn, or they can be bacteria, such as pneumococcus. Vaccines stimulate the immune system to lớn react as if there were a real infection — it fends off the "infection" và remembers the organism so that it can fight it quickly should it enter the body later.

Some parents may hesitate to lớn have sầu their kids vaccinated because they"re worried that the children will have sầu serious reactions or may get the illness the vaccine is supposed khổng lồ prevent. Because the components of vaccines are weakened or killed — và in some cases, only parts of the microorganism are used — they"re unlikely lớn cause any serious illness. Some vaccines may cause mild reactions, such as soreness where the shot was given or fever, but serious reactions are rare.

The risks of vaccinations are small compared with the health risks associated with the diseases they"re intended to lớn prsự kiện.

The following vaccinations & schedules are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Please note that some variations are acceptable & that changes in recommendations frequently occur as new vaccines are developed. The AAPhường. recommends that children get combination vaccines (rather than single vaccines) whenever possible. Many vaccines are offered in combination lớn help reduce the number of shots a child receives.

Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child.

Recommended vaccinations:

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the liver. Those who are infected can become lifelong carriers of the virut và may develop long-term problems such as cirrhosis (liver disease) or cancer of the liver.

Immunization schedule

Hepatitis B vaccine usually is given as a series of three injections. The first shot is often given to infants shortly after birth. If the mother of a newborn carries the hepatitis B vi khuẩn in her blood, the infant needs to lớn receive the first shot within 12 hours after birth, along with another shot (HBIG) khổng lồ immediately provide protection against the virut. If a newborn"s mother shows no evidence of HBV in her blood, the infant may receive the hepatitis B vaccine any time prior khổng lồ leaving the hospital. It may also be delayed until the 1- or 2- month visit khổng lồ your doctor.

If the first dose is given shortly after birth, the second shot is given at 1 to lớn 2 months & the third at 6 to 18 months. For infants who don"t receive the first shot until 1 to 2 months, the second shot is given at 3 lớn 4 months and the third at 6 lớn 18 months. In either case, the second & third shots are usually given in conjunction with other routine childhood immunizations.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The hepatitis B vaccine usually creates long-term immunity. Infants who receive sầu the HBV series should be protected from hepatitis B infection not only throughout their childhood but also into lớn the adult years. Eliminating the risk of infection also decreases risk for cirrhosis of the liver, chronic liver disease, và liver cancer. Young adults và adolescents should also receive sầu the vaccine if they did not as infants.

Possible risks

There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine. Serious problems associated with receiving the HBV vaccine are rare. Problems that bởi occur tkết thúc lớn be minor, such as fever or redness or tenderness at the injection site.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently siông xã, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization

* if a severe allergic reaction (called anaphylaxis) occurred after a previous injection of the HBV vaccine

Caring for your child after immunization

The vaccine may cause mild fever, và soreness và redness in the area where the shot was given. Depending on the age of your child, pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Very young infants should not be given either medication, but for older infants or children, check with the doctor about the appropriate medication & dose.

When to lớn call the doctor

* if you"re not sure of the recommended schedule for the hepatitis B vaccine

* if you have sầu concerns about your own HBV carrier state

* if serious adverse symptom appear after your child has received an HBV injection

Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV)

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) protects against pneumococcal infections. The bacterium is a leading cause of serious infections, including pneumonia, blood infections, and bacterial meningitis.

Children under 2 years old, adults over 65 years old, and people with certain medical conditions are most susceptible to serious pneumococcal infections. The pneumococcus bacterium is spread through person-to-person liên hệ. The vaccine not only prevents the infection in children who receive sầu it, it also helps stop its spread.

Immunization schedule

PCV immunizations are given as a series of four injections starting at 2 months of age và following at 4 months, 6 months, & 12 khổng lồ 15 months. Kids who miss the first dose or may have sầu missed subsequent doses due khổng lồ vaccine shortage should still receive the vaccine, & your doctor can give you a modified schedule for immunization.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The most serious infections affect children younger than 2 years old, and the vaccine will protect them when they"re at greakiểm tra risk.

PCV also is recommended for kids between 2 và 5 years of age who are at high risk for serious pneumococcal infections because they have medical problems such as:

* sickle cell anemia

* a damaged spleen or no spleen

* làm giảm hệ miễn dịch cấp tiến

* cochlear implants

* a disease that affects the immune system, such as diabetes or cancer

* receiving medications that affect the immune system, such as steroids or chemotherapy

* chronic heart or lung disease

In addition, these high-risk children may also receive sầu the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in addition to lớn the PCV when they"re older than 24 months.

Possible risks

Children who receive sầu the PCV vaccine may have sầu redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child may also have sầu a fever after receiving the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently siông xã, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization

* if your child has had a severe allergic reaction khổng lồ a previous dose of the vaccine

Caring for your child after immunization

The vaccine may cause mild fever, và soreness & redness in the area where the shot was given. Depending on the age of your child, pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your doctor to lớn see if you can give sầu either medication, & khổng lồ find out the appropriate dose.

When to Gọi the doctor

* if your child missed a dose in the series

* if a severe allergic reaction or high fever occurs after immunization

DTaP

The DTaPhường vaccine protects against:

* diphtheria a serious infection of the throat that can blochồng the airway và cause severe breathing difficulty

* tetanus — a nerve sầu disease, which can occur at any age, caused by toxin-producing bacteria contaminating a wound

* pertussis (whooping cough) — a respiratory illness with cold symptoms that progress khổng lồ severe coughing (the "whooping" sound occurs when the child breathes in deeply after a severe coughing bout); serious complications of pertussis can occur in children under 1 year of age, and those under 6 months old are especially susceptible. Teens & adults with a persistent cough may not realize they have pertussis, và may pass it lớn vulnerable infants.

Immunization schedule

DTaP immunizations are given as a series of five sầu injections & are usually administered at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 khổng lồ 18 months, và 4 to lớn 6 years. After the initial series of immunizations, a vaccine called Tdap (the booster shot) should be given at ages 11 to 12, or to lớn older teens và adults who haven"t yet received a booster with pertussis coverage. Then, Td (tetanus and diphtheria) boosters are recommended every 10 years.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Use of the DTaPhường vaccine has virtually eliminated diphtheria and tetanus in childhood and has markedly reduced the number of pertussis cases.

Possible risks

The vaccine frequently causes mild side effects: fever, mild crankiness, tiredness, loss of appetite, và tenderness, redness, or swelling in the area where the shot was given. Rarely, seizures or allergic reactions can occur following DTaP. Most of these side effects result from the pertussis component of the vaccine. Severe complications caused by DTaP. immunization are rare. Most kids have sầu little or no problem.

When to lớn delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization

* if your child has an uncontrolled seizure disorder or certain neurongắn gọn xúc tích diseases or seems not to lớn be developing normally — the pertussis component of the vaccine may not be given, và your child may receive a DT (diphtheria and tetanus) vaccine instead

If your child experienced any of the following after an earlier DTaPhường, consult with your doctor before your child receives another injection of the vaccine:

* seizures within 7 days after injection

* worsening of seizures

* an allergic reaction after receiving the vaccine, such as mouth, throat, or facial swelling

* difficulty breathing

* temperature of 105° Fahrenheit (40.5° Celsius) or higher during the first 2 days after injection

* shochồng or collapse during the first 2 days after injection

* persistent, uncontrolled crying that lasts for more than 3 hours during the first 2 days after injection

Caring for your child after immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in the area where the shot was given. Depending on the age of your child, pain & fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Cheông xã with your doctor lớn see if you can give sầu either medication, và to lớn find out the appropriate dose.

A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also may help reduce soreness. Moving or using the limb that has received the injection often reduces the soreness.

When lớn điện thoại tư vấn the doctor

* if you aren"t sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided. Children who have sầu had certain problems with the DTaPhường vaccine usually can safely receive the DT vaccine.

* if complications or severe symptoms develop after immunization, including seizures, fever above 105° Fahrenheit (40.5° Celsius), difficulty breathing or other signs of allergy, shoông chồng or collapse, or uncontrolled crying for more than 3 hours

Hib

Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria were the leading cause of meningitis in children under 5 years until the Hib vaccine became available.

Immunization schedule

The Hib vaccine is given by injection at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months (however, some of the Hib vaccines vày not require a dose at 6 months). A booster dose is given at 12 lớn 15 months.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The vaccine provides long-term protection from Haemophilus influenzae type b. Those immunized have sầu protection against Hib meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis (an infection of the membrane covering the heart), và infections of the blood, bones, & joints caused by the bacteria.

Possible risks

Minor problems, such as redness, swelling, or tenderness where the shot was given, may occur. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

When to lớn delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently siông xã, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prsự kiện immunization

* if severe allergic reaction occurs after an injection of the Hib vaccine, further Hib immunizations may not be given lớn your child

Caring for your child after immunization

The vaccine may cause mild soreness và redness in the area where the shot was given. Depending on the age of your child, pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your doctor khổng lồ see if you can give either medication, & khổng lồ find out the appropriate dose.

When to lớn Hotline the doctor

* if you aren"t sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if serious adverse reactions appear after the Hib injection

IPV

Polio is a viral infection that can result in permanent paralysis.

Immunization schedule

The inactivated poliovi khuẩn vaccine (IPV) is usually given at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months, và 4 lớn 6 years.

Until recently, the oral poliovirut vaccine (OPV) was given in the United States. Updated recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices now Điện thoại tư vấn for IPV injections. This change eliminates the previous small risk of developing polio after receiving the live sầu oral polio vaccine.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The vaccine offers protection against polio, which can cause paralysis and death.

Possible risks

Side effects include fever & redness or soreness at the site of injection. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* IPV should not be given lớn kids with severe allergy to lớn neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B.

* IPV should not be given khổng lồ kids who had a severe allergic reaction lớn a previous IPV shot.

Caring for your child after immunization

IPV may cause mild fever, and soreness and redness at the site of the injection for several days. Depending on the age of your child, pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your doctor to lớn see if you can give sầu either medication, and khổng lồ find out the appropriate dose.

When lớn call the doctor

* if you aren"t sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if severe adverse reactions occur after the immunization

Influenza

Influenza, or "the flu," is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract.

Immunization schedule

Beginning in the 2010-2011 flu season, the seasonal flu vaccine protects against H1N1 flu, as well as other flu viruses.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the flu vaccine for all people age 6 months & older. Certain people are at higher risk of complications from the flu. They include:

* pregnant women

* children younger than age 5, especially those younger than 2

* people age 65 & older

* people of any age who have chronic health conditions

Infants younger than 6 months are too young to lớn receive sầu the vaccine, but all other high risk persons should be vaccinated. Health care workers, caregivers, & close contacts of at-risk persons (including those who care for infants younger than 6 months) should also get the flu vaccine.

In the past, there have sầu been times when there were vaccine shortages & delays. So talk with your doctor about availability.

For kids younger than 9 who are getting the seasonal influenza vaccine for the first time or did not get the H1N1 vaccine during the 2009-2010 flu season, it"s given in two separate shots a month apart. It can take about 2 weeks after the shot is given for the body khổng lồ build up protection against the flu.

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A non-shot option called the nasal mist vaccine came on the market in 2003 for the seasonal flu & is now approved for use in healthy 2- to lớn 49-year-olds. The nasal mist contains live sầu but weakened virus that will not cause the flu. However, the vaccine isn"t recommended for kids with certain medical conditions or pregnant women. Talk to lớn your doctor about which vaccine is right for your child.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The flu vaccine reduces a person"s chances of catching the flu by up to 80% during the season. Getting the shot before the flu season is in full force gives the body toàn thân a chance to lớn build up immunity to, or protection from, the virut.

The shot usually becomes available between September and mid-November. Although you can get a flu shot well inlớn flu season, it"s best to try to get it earlier rather than later. However, later in the flu season, it"s still a good idea to get protection.

Even if you or your child got the seasonal flu vaccine last year, that won"t protect you from getting the seasonal flu this year, because the protection wears off và flu viruses constantly change. That"s why the vaccine is updated each year lớn include the most current strains of the virut.

A good example of how flu viruses change (and sometimes develop new strains) was the outbreak of the H1N1 flu in 2009. This flu strain was not included in the 2009-2010 seasonal flu vaccine, so a separate H1N1 flu vaccine was developed. Since then, the H1N1 flu shot has been incorporated into lớn the seasonal flu shot.

Possible risks

Usually given as an injection in the upper arm, the flu shot contains killed flu viruses that will not cause someone to get the flu, but will cause the body to make antibodies to fight off a live flu vi khuẩn if it does enter the toàn thân.

Some of the most comtháng side effects from the flu shot are soreness, redness, or swelling at the site of the injection. A low-grade fever và aches are also possible. Because the nasal spray flu vaccine is made from live sầu viruses, it may cause mild flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, headabít, vomiting, muscle aches, and fever. Very rarely, the flu vaccine can cause serious side effects such as a severe allergic reaction.

When lớn delay or avoid immunization

People who should not get the seasonal flu shot include:

* infants under 6 months old

* anyone who"s severely allergic lớn eggs and egg products. Tell the doctor if your child is allergic before he or she gets a flu shot.

* anyone who"s ever had a severe reaction khổng lồ a flu vaccination

* anyone who"s had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, a rare medical condition that affects the nerves)

* anyone with a severe illness

Caring for your child after immunization

Pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Cheông xã with your doctor to see if you can give either medication, and lớn find out the appropriate dose. Some doctors recommkết thúc a dose just before the immunization. A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also may help minimize soreness. Moving or using the limb that has received the injection often reduces the soreness as well.

When to Điện thoại tư vấn the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are serious problems after the immunization, such as an allergic reaction, high fever, or other concern

MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)

The MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, và rubella (German measles). MMR vaccinations are given by injection in two doses. The first is administered at age 12 to 15 months; the second generally is given at age 4 to lớn 6 years.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Measles, mumps, & rubella are infections that can lead to significant illness. More than 95% of children receiving MMR will be protected from the three diseases throughout their lives.

Possible risks

Serious problems such as allergic reactions are rare. Potential mild khổng lồ moderate adverse effects include rash, fever, swollen cheeks, febrile seizures, and mild joint pain.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prsự kiện immunization

* if your child has an allergy to lớn gelatin or khổng lồ the antibiotic neomycin, check with your doctor about immunization

* if your child had a severe allergic reaction lớn a previous dose of MMR vaccine

* if your child has recently received gamma globulin or a blood transfusion, check with your doctor about immunization

* if your child has a medical problem that affects the immune system, such as cancer

* if your child is taking prednisone, steroids, or other immunosuppressive sầu drugs

* if your child is undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy

* if your child has ever had a low platelet count, kiểm tra with your doctor about immunization

* pregnant women should wait until after delivery for the vaccine

Caring for your child after immunization

If a rash develops without other symptoms, no treatment is necessary & it should resolve sầu within several days. Pain & fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Cheông xã with your doctor khổng lồ see if you can give either medication, và find out the appropriate dose.

When khổng lồ Hotline the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

Varicella (chickenpox)

The varicella vaccine protects against chickenpox (varicella), a comtháng & very contagious childhood viral illness.

Immunization schedule

The varicella vaccine is given by injection between the ages of 12 and 15 months, followed by a booster shot at 4 to 6 years of age for further protection. Older kids under the age of 13 years who have not had chickenpox may also receive sầu the vaccine, with the two doses given at least 3 months apart. Kids 13 years or older who have not had either chickenpox or the vaccine need two vaccine doses at least 1 month apart.

Why the vaccine is recommended

The varicella vaccine prevents severe illness in almost all children who are immunized. It"s up to lớn 85% effective in preventing mild illness. Vaccinated kids who vày get chickenpox generally have a mild case.

Possible risks

Serious reactions such as allergic reactions are extremely rare. Possible mild effects are tenderness & redness where the shot was given, fever, fatigue, & a varicella-lượt thích illness. A rash can occur up to lớn 1 month after the injection. It may last for several days but will disappear on its own without treatment. There is a very small risk of febrile seizures after vaccination.

When lớn delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently siông chồng, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prsự kiện immunization

* if your child has an allergy lớn gelatin or khổng lồ the antibiotic neomycin

* if your child had a severe allergic reaction to lớn a previous dose of varicella vaccine

* if your child has recently received gamma globulin or a blood transfusion, talk to lớn your doctor about immunization

* if your child has a disorder that affects the immune system, such as cancer; is taking prednisone, steroids, or other immunosuppressive sầu drugs; or is undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy

* pregnant women should wait until after delivery for vaccination

Caring for your child after immunization

Pain & fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Cheông chồng with your doctor khổng lồ see if you can give either medication, và find out the appropriate dose.

When khổng lồ Gọi the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

MCV4

The meningitis vaccine protects against meningococcal disease, a serious bacterial infection that can lead khổng lồ bacterial meningitis.

The vaccine is recommended for kids at age 11 or 12 years, at ages 13 to 18 years if not previously vaccinated, và older teens who are entering college và will be living in a dormitory setting, & those entering the military. It is also recommended for children between the ages of 2 và 10 with certain high risk medical problems. When medical problems continue, these kids also need a follow-up booster dose a few years later, depending on the age at which the first dose was given.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Bacterial meningitis, an inflammation of the membrane that protects the brain và spinal cord, is a rare but highly contagious disease that can spread rapidly among kids who are in cthua kém quarters. It can be life-threatening if not promptly treated.

Possible risks

Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, & pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or fatigue. Severe problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.

When lớn delay or avoid immunization

* if your child has had allergic reactions to the DTaP vaccine or khổng lồ latex

* if your child has a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a disease of the nervous system which causes progressive sầu weakness

* if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization

Caring for your child after immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, & some swelling and redness in the area where the shot was given. Pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your doctor to see if you can give sầu either medication, and lớn find out the appropriate dose.

A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also may help reduce soreness. Moving or using the limb that has received the injection often reduces the soreness.

When to gọi the Doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A vi khuẩn (HAV) causes fever, nausea, vomiting, và jaundice, and can lead khổng lồ community-wide epidemics. Childcare centers are a common site of outbreaks.

The vaccine is recommended for children 12 to lớn 23 months old, followed by a second dose 6 months later. Although in the past the vaccine was recommended for older kids và adults who were at high risk for the disease (such as those who lived in or traveled to locations with high rates of HAV), the vaccine is now recommended for anyone who desires immunity khổng lồ the disease.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Vaccination against HAV can help stop epidemics from developing in the community, in addition lớn protecting the individual child. Some infected children vì chưng not have any symptoms, và can spread the vi khuẩn khổng lồ others. The more young children who are vaccinated against HAV, the more limited the spread of disease will be in a community.

Possible risks

Side effects are usually mild fever, và tenderness, swelling, và redness at the site of the injection. Allergic reactions to the vaccine are rare.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prsự kiện immunization

* if your child had an allergic reaction to lớn the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine

Caring for your child after immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, và some swelling and redness in the area where the shot was given. Pain & fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your doctor khổng lồ see if you can give sầu either medication, and to find out.

When lớn Gọi the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a common virus that causes diarrhea, especially in infants và young children. Childcare centers are a common site of outbreaks.

The vaccine, which is a liquid given by mouth, is recommended at ages 2 & 4 months, as well as a dose at 6 months depending on the brand vaccine used.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Rotavirut can cause dehydration secondary khổng lồ large amounts of diarrhea, & can result in children requiring hospitalization. Vaccination against rotavirut can help stop spread in the community, in addition to protecting the individual child.

Possible risks

Side effects can include diarrhea và vomiting, in addition lớn fever.

When khổng lồ delay or avoid immunization

* if your child is currently sick, although simple colds should not prevent immunization

* if your child had an allergic reaction lớn a previous dose of the vaccine

* let the doctor know if your child has an allergy to lớn latex

* if your child has an abnormality of the digestive system or a gastrointestinal disease, talk lớn your doctor about immunization

* if your child has a history of intussusception, a type of serious bowel blockage, talk khổng lồ your doctor about immunization

* if your child has recently received gamma globulin or a blood transfusion

* if your child has immune system problems from a disease such as cancer; is taking steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs; or is undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy

Caring for your child after immunization

Depending on the age of your child, fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Cheông chồng with your doctor to see if you can give either medication, & lớn find out the appropriate dose. If vomiting or diarrhea occur, make sure to lớn give sầu your child frequent amounts of fluid & watch for signs of dehydration, such as less urine than usual.

When khổng lồ gọi the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

HPV

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that causes genital warts & changes in the cervix that can result in cervical cancer.

The vaccine is given as a series of three shots over a 6-month period and is recommended for girls 11 or 12 years old, as well as for older girls who are unvaccinated. The vaccine can also be given khổng lồ boys ages 9 through 18 years, to prsự kiện the development of genital warts.

Why the vaccine is recommended

Because HPV can cause serious problems such as genital warts and cervical cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection & protecting against the spread of HPV. It works best when given before a girl becomes sexually active sầu.

Possible risks

Side effects are usually mild fever & tenderness, swelling, and redness at the site of the injection. Dizziness, fainting, nausea, & vomiting may also occur after the shot. Allergic reactions lớn the vaccine occur rarely.

When to delay or avoid immunization

* if your daughter is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prsự kiện immunization

* if your daughter had an allergic reaction khổng lồ the first dose of HPV vaccine

* if your daughter has had a severe allergic reaction lớn yeast

* if your daughter is pregnant

* if your daughter has a bleeding disorder (discuss with your hematologist)

Caring for your child after immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, and some swelling và redness in the area where the shot was given. Pain và fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Chechồng with your doctor to see if you can give sầu either medication, & find out the appropriate dose.

When lớn điện thoại tư vấn the doctor

* if you aren"t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

* if there are problems after the immunization

Immunization schedule

This immunization schedule is a handy reference to lớn help you keep traông chồng of which vaccines your child needs khổng lồ receive sầu and when.

Types of vaccines

Some types of vaccines are:

1. Attenuated (weakened) live sầu viruses are used in some vaccines such as in the measles, mumps, và rubella (MMR) vaccine.

2. Killed (inactivated) viruses or bacteria are used in some vaccines, such as in IPV.

3. Toxoid vaccines contain an inactivated toxin produced by the bacterium. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.

4. Conjugate vaccines (such as Hib) contain parts of bacteria combined with proteins.

Immunizations for travel

Specific information about which immunizations are required by travelers khổng lồ each country worldwide is available directly from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ask your doctor for more information.

Depending on the type & length of travel, some vaccines may be recommended. Most immunizations should be given at least 1 month before travel. Take your child"s immunization records with you when you travel internationally.

Helping kids through vaccine injections

Sometimes it"s hard to lớn tell who dreads immunizations more — parents or kids. Here are some tips khổng lồ help make the procedure easier for everyone:

* Tell older kids what"s going lớn happen & that the shot helps lớn keep them healthy.

* Tell younger kids that it"s OK to cry, but also encourage them to lớn be brave sầu.

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* Try to be calm yourself. Your child can pick up on your concerns.

* Distraction at the moment of the injection is helpful. Try having kids count, sing a tuy vậy with you, or look away (perhaps at a picture on the wall). You may want lớn have a joke or funny bình luận ready.

* Offer praise after the injection is over.

* Plan something fun for after the appointment. A trip khổng lồ the park or playground can make the overall immunization experience less unpleasant.

As uneasy as getting vaccinated may make both you và your child, rethành viên that immunizations are one of the best means of protection against contagious diseases.


Chuyên mục: Kiến Thức